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J Clin Oncol. 1983 Dec;1(12):763-71.

Alteration of the pharmacokinetics of high-dose ara-C by its metabolite, high ara-U in patients with acute leukemia.


The pharmacokinetics of high-dose cytosine arabinoside (HiDAC) given as a three-hour intravenous infusion at 3 g/m2 were studied in five patients with acute leukemia during relapse and/or remission of their disease. Apparent steady state plasma levels of ara-C during 13 infusions averaged 115 +/- 32 microM. Upon cessation of the infusion, cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) was rapidly cleared from the plasma. The apparent postinfusion kinetics of ara-C were triexponential with a distribution half-life of 16 minutes and elimination half-lives of 1.8 hours and six hours. Total clearance averaged 86 L per hour and mean residence time averaged 0.47 hours. Disease status (relapse or remission) had no apparent effect on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of ara-C. Peak levels of ara-U averaged 310 microM and the metabolite had an average apparent elimination half-life of 3.75 hours. Despite the persistence of ara-U at about 100 microM at the time of administration of subsequent infusions of ara-C, there was no further accumulation of ara-U in the plasma with repetitive infusions of HiDAC. In vitro studies indicate that ara-U can exert an inhibitory effect on deoxycytidine (dCyd) deaminase activity. The ratio of the Ki of ara-U to the Km of ara-C for cytidine (Cyd)-dCyd deaminase is 40:1; however, during the gamma phase of ara-C elimination, the ratio of ara-U:ara-C in plasma is at least 100:1. Thus, a retardation of systemic catabolism of ara-C by ara-U is possible. Two to three hours after the termination of the HiDAC infusion, the ara-C cerebrospinal fluid: plasma ratio is 1-3:1, a feature of potential therapeutic significance. The slower elimination of ara-C from the CSF may also contribute to the plasma gamma half-life.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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