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Arch Sex Behav. 1978 May;7(3):211-27.

An involvement and overtness measure for lesbians: its development and relation to anxiety and social zeitgeist.


The relationships among anxiety, degree of overtness in homosexuality, involvement in homosexuality, and occupational status were investigated to test prevalent hypotheses relating homosexuality and neuroticism. Sixty-three acknowledged lesbians completed the Manifest Anxiety and Defensiveness Scale (MAD), the Lesbian Degree of Involvement and Overtness Scales (DIOS), and a biographical data sheet. Reliability and validity indices for the DIOS are presented. Some findings were that anxiety was not related to degree of involvement in homosexuality, that anxiety was related to degree of overtness in low- but not in high-status lesbians, and that the social Zeitgeist at the time of first lesbian activity was related to degree of overtness but not to degree of involvement in homosexuality. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between social desirability and a hostile society. Additionally, comparisons of anxiety levels in homosexual and heterosexual women are presented and discussed. The results are interpreted as lending support to the emerging view of the homosexual as nonneurotic.

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