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Stat Med. 1983 Apr-Jun;2(2):267-71.

The need for randomization in the study of intended effects.

Abstract

The need for randomization as a means of controlling confounders is accentuated in the study of intended effects (efficacy) as compared with unintended ones (toxicity). The basic reason is that the indication for intervention is inherently a confounder in the study of efficacy but not of toxicity, whereas contraindications represent only a minor confounder even in toxicity research. Moreover, control of the indication in non-experimental terms is commonly infeasible owing to the complexity and subtlety of the indication.

PMID:
6648141
DOI:
10.1002/sim.4780020222
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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