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Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1983 Sep;61(9):1025-34.

Inhibition of hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenases in the rat by calcium carbimide (calcium cyanamide).


Oral administration of 7.0 mg/kg calcium carbimide (calcium cyanamide, CC) to the rat produced differential inhibition of hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) isozymes, as indicated by the time-course profiles of enzyme activity. The low-Km mitochondrial ALDH was most susceptible to inhibition following CC administration, with complete inhibition occurring at 0.5 h and return to control activity at 96 h. The low-Km cytosolic and high-Km mitochondrial, cytosolic, and microsomal ALDH isozymes were inhibited to a lesser degree and (or) for a shorter duration compared with the mitochondrial low-Km enzyme. The time course of carbimide, the hydrolytic product of CC, was determined in plasma following oral administration of 7.0 mg/kg CC to the rat. The maximum plasma carbimide concentration (102 ng/mL) occurred at 1 h and the apparent elimination half-life in plasma was 1.5 h. Carbimide was not measurable in the liver during the 6.5 h time interval when carbimide was present in the plasma. There were negative, linear correlations between plasma carbimide concentration and hepatic low-Km mitochondrial, low-Km cytosolic, and high-Km microsomal ALDH activities. In vitro studies demonstrated that carbimide, at concentrations obtained in plasma following oral CC administration, produced only 19% inhibition of low-Km mitochondrial ALDH and no inhibition of low-Km cytosolic and high-Km microsomal ALDH isozymes. These data demonstrate that carbimide, itself, is not primarily responsible for hepatic ALDH inhibition in vivo following oral CC administration. It would appear that carbimide must undergo metabolic conversion in vivo to inhibit hepatic ALDH enzymes, which is supported by the observation of no measurable carbimide in the liver when ALDH was maximally inhibited following oral CC administration.

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