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Am J Sports Med. 1983 Jul-Aug;11(4):249-52.

Effects of warming up, massage, and stretching on range of motion and muscle strength in the lower extremity.


The effects of general warming up, massage, and stretching on ranges of motion (ROM) and strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles were measured in eight male volunteers. Thigh muscle strength was not influenced by the experimental procedures. Stretching resulted in a significantly increased range of hip flexion/extension, hip abduction, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion; the effect was significantly greater than that obtained by massage and warming up separately or combined. Only ankle dorsiflexion was influenced by massage or warming up, whereas stretching affected all muscle groups tested. Stretching was, therefore, superior to the other methods tested for increasing flexibility in the lower extremity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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