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Cancer. 1984 Feb 1;53(3):411-9.

Multivariate analysis of factors associated with invasive fungal disease during remission induction therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia.


The clinical courses of 54 consecutive adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who underwent 67 courses of intensive remission induction therapy were analyzed to assess factors associated with development of serious fungal and bacterial infections. Fever developed in 65 of 67 remission induction attempts and was due to bacterial, bacterial-fungal, and fungal etiologies in 49%, 14%, and 9% of cases, respectively. No etiology of fever was found in 28% of cases. Bacteremia occurred in 54% of remission induction attempts. Invasive fungal disease (IFD) occurred in 22% of cases with an overall mortality of 60%, including 45% of the patients who died during treatment. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, a mathematical model was constructed which correlated with the risk of IFD. Major factors associated with patients who ultimately develop IFD included the duration of chemotherapy, the number of sites colonized with fungi and the number of fungal species isolated on certain surveillance cultures, particularly Aspergillus species. These studies define characteristics of patients at high risk for development of IFD for whom early initiation of empiric antifungal therapy is strongly recommended.

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