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Am J Orthod. 1983 Nov;84(5):384-98.

Quantitative analysis of the orthodontic and orthopedic effects of maxillary traction.


This article analyzes differences in displacement of ANS and of the upper first molar when different vectors of force are delivered to the maxilla in non-full-banded Phase I mixed-dentition treatment of Class II malocclusion. The sample is identical to that for which we have previously reported differences in change in several key measures of mandibular and facial shape. It includes a cervical-traction group, a high-pull-to-upper-molar group, a modified-activator group, and an untreated Class II control group. Using newly developed computer-conducted procedures, which are described, we have been able to partition the orthodontic and orthopedic components of upper molar displacement and also to isolate treatment effects from those attributable to spontaneous growth and development. In the region of ANS, small but statistically significant and clinically meaningful differences were noted between treatments. When the intercurrent effects of growth and development had been factored out (Table III), orthopedic distal displacement of ANS was significantly greater in the high-pull and cervical groups than in the activator group. Orthopedic downward displacement of ANS was seen to be significantly greater in the cervical group than in the high-pull and activator groups. In the region of the first molar cusp, mean distal displacement of the tooth as an orthopedic effect was found to be almost identical in the cervical and high-pull groups (although variability was greater in the cervical group), but the mean orthodontic effect was significantly greater in the high-pull group than in the cervical group. In the cervical group, where relatively light forces were used for relatively long treatment periods on average, more of the total distal displacement of the upper molar was of an orthopedic character than of an orthodontic character. Conversely, in the high-pull group, in which relatively heavier forces tended to be used for briefer treatment periods, most of the distal displacement at the upper molar was of an orthodontic character. These observations are contrary to expectations from conventional orthodontic theory. In the activator-treated group, roughly equal components of the treatment-associated distal displacement of the upper molar were of the orthodontic and orthopedic types. As concerns changes in the vertical direction in the region of the molar cusp, significant intrusion of both the orthopedic and orthodontic types was seen in the high-pull sample as compared to each of the other groups examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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