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J Pediatr. 1984 Dec;105(6):864-7.

Risk factors for microwave scald injuries in infants.


An infant sustained second- and third-degree scald burns of the oropharynx from drinking formula heated in a microwave oven. The circumstances leading to the scald injuries were recreated. Factors contributing to the injury included the volume of formula, the initial temperature of the formula, and the temperature gradient between the liquid core and the bottle surface after microwave heating. These studies indicate that infant formula should be warmed only with extreme care in microwave ovens and should be tested for suitability of temperature prior to feeding.

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