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Hypertension. 1984 Sep-Oct;6(5):736-42.

Interrelationships between blood pressure, sodium, potassium, serum cholesterol, and protein intake in Japanese.


Interrelationships among blood pressure (BP), sodium (Na), potassium (K), dietary protein, and serum cholesterol level (Chol) were examined in 62% (1120) of 1818 Japanese inhabitants of both sexes aged over 30 years who lived in a rural village in Japan. Fasting single-spot urine specimens were collected in the morning to measure Na, K, urea nitrogen (UN), inorganic sulfate (SO4), and creatinine (Cr). The Cr ratios of Na, K, UN, SO4, Na/K, and SO4/UN were analyzed by multiple regression analysis to determine independent associations with BP together with age, obesity index, hematocrit (Hct), Chol, triglyceride (TG), and fasting serum glucose level (Glu). Except for Na/Cr in men, Na/Cr and Na/K were found to be independently and positively related to BP, particularly to systolic BP (SBP). In contrast, K/Cr and SO4/UN (an index related to the dietary score of sulphur-containing amino acids derived mainly from animal protein) were both negatively associated with SBP, and UN/Cr (an index of total protein intake) was positively associated with SBP in men. Chol was linked to BP negatively in men but positively in women. Age, obesity index, TG, and Hct were generally positively and significantly related to BP in both sexes. The results confirmed on epidemiological grounds the positive link of Na and the negative link of K to BP within a single population in Japan. They further suggest, although only in men, that there is a negative relationship of Chol and dietary animal protein with BP.

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