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Biochem Pharmacol. 1984 Oct 15;33(20):3257-62.

Characterization of aminoglycoside-lipid interactions and development of a refined model for ototoxicity testing.


Aminoglycoside interactions with various phospholipids were measured in three model systems and compared with the ototoxicities of the drugs: (a) competition for [14C]neomycin binding; (b) competition for 45Ca2+ binding; and (c) effect on surface pressure of monomolecular lipid films. The efficacies of the antibiotics in displacing neomycin from phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol or phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate were netilmicin greater than neomycin greater than or equal to gentamicin; the efficacies in displacing calcium from phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol phosphate or phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate were netilmicin greater than gentamicin greater than neomycin much greater than kanamycin greater than spectinomycin. Neither measure correlated well with the ototoxicities of the drugs which were quantitated at equimolar drug concentrations in cochlear perfusions: neomycin greater than gentamicin greater than or equal to tobramycin greater than netilmicin greater than or equal to amikacin. When monomolecular films of phosphatidylcholine with phosphatidylserine, cardiolipin, phosphatidylinositol, or phosphatidylinositol phosphate or bisphosphate were challenged with neomycin, the phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate film showed a unique dose-dependent increase in surface pressure while the others showed a decrease or no significant effect. The abilities of aminoglycosides to increase the surface pressure of a film of phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (1:1 molar ratio) in the presence of 3 mM CaCl2 correlated well with their toxicities. Non-ototoxic cations increased the film pressure or left it unaffected. The results confirm the unique interactions between aminoglycosides and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate as a possible basis of a mechanism of toxicity and development of a drug-screening system.

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