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J Immunol. 1984 May;132(5):2402-7.

The immunopathology of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. II. Endothelial cell Ia increases prior to inflammatory cell infiltration.


Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T cell-mediated neuroimmunologic disease model characterized by meningeal and parenchymal mononuclear cell infiltrates (see preceding companion paper). Here we report enhanced staining for Ia in the central nervous system (CNS) microvasculature endothelium in acute EAE in adult strain 13 guinea pigs (GP) sensitized with GP spinal cord homogenate (SC) or with GP myelin basic protein (MBP) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Cryostat sections of CNS and other tissues were stained with two monoclonal antibodies, 5S2 and 22C4, to GP Ia determinants, and with polyclonal antibody to factor VIII-related antigen (VIII-RA) as an endothelial cell marker. Morphometric techniques were employed on immunoperoxidase counterstained and coded sections to determine the frequency of Ia+ vessels and cells. Rare (approximately 10% of VIII-RA+) vascular endothelial cells were Ia+ in the CNS of normal and CFA-sensitized controls. SC- or MBP-sensitized strain 13 GP sacrificed on day 7, before the onset of neurologic signs (pre-clinical), had no detectable CNS mononuclear cell infiltrates, but had increased (approximately 30% of VIII-RA+) endothelial cell Ia staining over controls (p less than 0.001). The endothelial Ia staining persisted (approximately 35% of VIII-RA+) in vessels as the animals developed paralysis. There were no differences in endothelial cell Ia between SC- and MBP-induced disease. EAE-resistant strain 2 GP sensitized with SC/CFA had no neurologic signs, and had fewer inflammatory foci than strain 13 GP with EAE, but had similar numbers of Ia+ endothelial cells. No differences in endothelial cell Ia staining were found in non-CNS tissues among any GP groups. In EAE, increased endothelial cell Ia is a pre-inflammatory, target organ-specific alteration that persists during inflammation. The findings suggest that in vivo modulation of endothelial cell Ia may be part of the local immune response. Endothelial cells may play a significant role, in antigen presentation or in promoting T cell migration, in the in situ immune response in the CNS.

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