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Am J Phys Med. 1984 Oct;63(5):226-44.

Sensory feedback therapy and theoretical knowledge of motor control and learning.


Generally the application of artificial sensory feedback therapy (e.g. EMG biofeedback) in neuromuscular rehabilitation is conceived as a psychophysiological operant conditioning technique. Until now there are almost no attempts to link these methods to modern psychological theories of motor control. In the present article a critical review is given of four theoretical systems concerning motor control: closed-loop theory, open-loop theory, schema-theory, and finally a brief overview is presented of recently developed notions on heterarchical and distributed control. Artificial sensory feedback therapy (e.g. EMG feedback) is described against this theoretical background, with an emphasis on the role of feedback in motor learning and motor control. The implications of these theories for new directions in sensory feedback therapy are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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