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Microbiol Rev. 1983 Dec;47(4):510-50.

New knowledge on pathogenesis of bacterial enteric infections as applied to vaccine development.



This review attempts to synthesize the new knowledge of pathogenesis of bacterial enteric infections and relate this information to vaccine development. Discussion focuses on human infections and to those in which significant strides have been made. As a general theme in the pathogenesis of bacterial enteric infections, pathogens can be characterized into 5 groups on the basis of their degree of ultimate invasiveness after ingestion by a susceptible hose: mucosal adherence and enterotoxin production; mucosal adherence and brush border dissolution -- enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) of "classical" serotypes; mucosal invasion and intraepithelial cell proliferation; mucosal translocation followed by bacterial proliferation in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes; and mucosal translocation followed by generalized infection. The review covers cholera (motility and chemotaxis, mucosal adhesion, flagellar sheath protein, hemagglutinins, outer membrane proteins, enterotoxin production, quality and duration of infection derived immunity, immune response in humans, LPS, flagellar sheath protein, cholera lectin, other cholera hemagglutinins, outer membrane protein, previous cholera vaccines, killer whole cell vaccines, toxoids, combination vaccines, attenuated versus cholerae vaccines): enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (entertoxins, O:H serotypes and enterotoxin phenotypes, colonization factors, immune response in humans, vaccines against ETEC, and toxiods); EPEC (vaccines against EPEC); Shigella (smooth LPS O antigen, epithelial cell invasiveness, Shigella toxin, and Shigella vaccines); and typhoid fever (caccines against typhoid fever). The major attraction of a nonliving oral cholera vaccine is its safety. A review of available information leads to the conclusion that an oral vaccine consisting of a combination of antigens, intending to stimulate both antibacterial and antitoxic immunity, would be most likely to succeed. Current approaches to immunoprophylaxis of ETEC infection involve vaccines that stimulate antitoxic or antiadhesion immunity or both by means of killed antigens or attenuated strains. It is likely that the most effective vaccines will contain appropriate antigens intended to simultaneously stimulate both antibacterial and antitoxic immunity, thereby leading to a synergistic protective effect. Now that the speical enteroadhesive properties of EPEC have been characterized and shown to be associated with a plasmid, it should be possible to identify the phenotypic gene products responsible for this phenomenon. It is likely that fimbriae or outer membrane proteins will prove to be the organelle of adhesion. When such information becomes available, it should be possible to prepare oral vaccines consisting of the purified antigen. Efficacy has been shown for attenuated Shigella strains utilized as oral vaccines. The major thrust in the development of new immunization agensts against typhoid fever is to identify immunizing agents at least equal in efficacy to the parenteral acetone killed vaccine but which cause no adverse reactions.

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