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Science. 1983 Nov 18;222(4625):771-8.

Cellular oncogenes and multistep carcinogenesis.


Two dozen cellular proto-oncogenes have been discovered to date through the study of retroviruses and the use of gene transfer. They form a structurally and functionally heterogeneous group. At least five distinct mechanisms are responsible for their conversion to active oncogenes. Recent work provides experimental strategies by which many of these oncogenes, as well as oncogenes of DNA tumor viruses, may be placed into functional categories. These procedures may lead to definition of a small number of common pathways through which the various oncogenes act to transform cells.

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