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J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1982 Dec 1;181(11):1316-21.

Candidiasis in captive cetaceans.


Disseminated Candida albicans infections were found or suspected in 4 captive cetaceans. Ketoconazole at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg, BID, administered orally for 18 days, followed by 8 biweekly oral doses of levamisole hydrochloride at the rate of 9 mg/kg, resulted in regression of clinical signs of candidiasis in an adult male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). A higher dosage of ketoconazole (6 mg/kg, BID) was effective in eliminating the shedding of C albicans from an adult male belukha whale (Delphinapterus leucas). A juvenile female harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) treated with nystatin died with disseminated candidiasis, as did a juvenile male longfinned pilot whale (Globicephala melaena) treated with nystatin and levamisole. Three other adult bottlenose dolphins, a juvenile female belukha whale, and a female Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) kept in the same water system never had evidence of candidiasis. A 5th bottlenose dolphin (an adult female) was culture-positive on 1 occasion, but never had signs of the disease.

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