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Endocr Rev. 1982 Summer;3(3):229-44.

Cushing's syndrome: problems in management.


CS comprises a group of disorders characterized by hypercortisolism. The variety of causes--pituitary-dependent CS (CD), adrenal tumor, and the ectopic ACTH syndrome--necessitates a variety of therapies--surgical, radiotherapeutic, and medical. Once a specific diagnosis is made, specific therapy can be instituted. Although some controversy persists regarding treatment, particularly that of CD, for most patients it is straightforward. However, in our experience with more than 60 patients, therapeutic dilemmas can arise in a number of circumstances, e.g. the patient with the radiologically normal sella or recurrent CD after adrenalectomy. In addition, the treatment of such conditions as the large ACTH-producing pituitary tumor, Nelson's syndrome, the malignant ectopic ACTH syndrome, and adrenal carcinoma is not entirely satisfactory. Our approach to these problems is illustrated by seven cases, and we emphasize that the proper management of CS requires both correct diagnosis and the logical application of all available therapies.

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