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J Biol Chem. 1981 Jun 10;256(11):5536-9.

Synthesis and biological activity of vitamin D3 3 beta-sulfate. Role of vitamin D3 sulfates in calcium homeostasis.


To determine the biological activity of vitamin D sulfates, we synthesized vitamin D3 3 beta-sulfate and tested its biological activity in vitamin D-deficient hypocalcemic rats. When vitamin D3 sulfate was administered as a single oral dose of 208,000 or 416,000 pmol (100 micrograms or 200 micrograms), it increased active calcium transport in the duodenum and was also able to mobilize calcium from bone and soft tissue. Dose levels below this failed to elicit a response. Vitamin D3 itself was active at doses as low as 260 pmol when administered in this manner. In order to test the biological activity of vitamin D3 sulfate in various doses when administered chronically, we tested the biological activity of vitamin D3 sulfate after 5 days or oral dosing: vitamin D3 sulfate was active at doses of 52,000 pmol/day (25 microgram), whereas vitamin D3 was active at doses of 65 to 260 pmol/day over a period of 5 days. When administered as a single intravenous dose, vitamin D3 sulfate exhibited no biological activity in doses as high as 52,000 pmol. Vitamin D3, however, was active at a dose of as low as 65 pmol. We conclude that vitamin D3 sulfate, a metabolite of vitamin D3 of heretofore unknown biological activity, is considerably less active than vitamin d3 itself.

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