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Genetics. 1980 Apr;94(4):871-89.

Genes affecting the expression of cytochrome c in yeast: genetic mapping and genetic interactions.


The four mutant genes, cyc2, cyc3, cyc8 and cyc9, that affect the levels of the two iso-cytochromes c in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been characterized and mapped. Both cyc2 and cyc3 lower the amount of iso-1-cytochrome c and iso-2-cytochrome c; whereas, cyc8 and cyc9 increase the amount of iso-2-cytochrome c. The cyc2, cyc3, cyc8 and cyc9 genes are located, respectively, on chromosomes XV, I, II and III, and are, therefore, unlinked to each other and unlinked to CYC1, the structural gene of iso-1-cytochrome c and to CYC7, the structural gene of iso-2-cytochrome c. While some cyc3 mutants are completely or almost completely deficient in cyotchromes c, none of the cyc2 mutants contained less than 10% of parental level of cytochrome c even though over one-half of the mutants contain UAA or UAG nonsense mutations. Thus, it appears as if a complete block of the cyc2 gene product still allows the formation of a residual fraction of cytochrome c. The cyc2 and cyc3 mutant genes cause deficiencies even in the presence of CYC7, cyc8 and cyc9, which normally cause overproduction of iso-2-cytochrome c. We suggest that cyc2 and cyc3 may be involved with the regulation or maturation of the iso-cytochromes c. In addition to having high levels of iso-2-cytochromes c, the cyc8 and cyc9 mutants are associated with flocculent cells and other abnormal phenotypes. The cyc9 mutant was shown to be allelic with the tup1 mutant and to share its properties, which include the ability to utilize exogenous dTMP, a characteristic flocculent morphology, the lack of sporulation of homozygous diploids and low frequency of mating and abnormally shaped cells of alpha strains. The diverse abnormalities suggest that cyc8 and cyc9 are not simple regulatory mutants controlling iso-2-cytochrome c.

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