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Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Apr 3;628(4):451-67.

Binding of adenosine diphosphate to human blood platelets and to isolated blood platelet membranes.


The equilibrium binding of 14C-labeled ADP to intact washed human blood platelets and to platelet membranes was investigated. With both intact platelets and platelet membranes a similar concentration dependence curve was found. It consisted of a curvilinear part below 20 microM and a rectilinear part above this concentration. At high ADP concentrations, the rectilinear part appeared to be saturable. Because of this, two classes of saturable ADP binding sites were proposed. ADP was partly converted to ATP and AMP with intact platelets while this conversion was virtually absent in isolated platelet membranes. ADP was bound to platelet membranes with the same type of curves found for intact platelets. The ADP binding to the high affinity system, which was stimulated by calcium ions, was nearly independent of temperature and had a pH optimum at 7.8. A number of agents were investigated for inhibiting properties. Of the sulfhydryl reagents only p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate inhibited both high and low affinity binding systems while iodoacetamide and N-ethylmaleimide were without effect. Compounds acting via cyclic AMP on platelet aggregation, such as adenosine and cyclic AMP itself, had no influence on binding. Some nucleosidediphosphates and nucleotide analogs at a concentration of 100 microM had no, or only a slight, effect on high affinity ADP binding. For some other nucleotides inhibitor constants were determined for both platelet ADP aggregation and ADP binding. The inhibitor constants of ATP, adenyl-5'-yl-(beta,gamma-methylene)diphosphate, IDP, adenosine-5'(2-O-thio)diphosphate, for aggregation and high affinity binding were in good correlation with each other. Exceptions formed fluorosulfonylbenzoyl adenosine and AMP. The ATP formation found with intact platelets could be attributed to a nucleosidediphosphate kinase. It was investigated in some detail. The enzyme was magnesium dependent, had a Q10 value of 1.41, a pH optimum at 8.0, was competitively inhibited by AMP and reacted via a ping pong mechanism. All findings described in this paper indicate that platelets as well as platelet membranes bind ADP with the same characteristics and they suggest that the high affinity binding of ADP is involved in platelet aggregation induced by ADP. The results on nucleosidediphosphate kinase did not permit a firm conclusion about the role of the enzyme in induction of platelet aggregation by ADP.

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