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Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1984 Jan;62(1):70-5.

Renal enzymes during experimental diabetes mellitus in the rat. Role of insulin, carbohydrate metabolism, and ketoacidosis.


The activities of various ammoniagenic, gluconeogenic, and glycolytic enzymes were measured in the renal cortex and also in the liver of rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. Five groups of animals were studied: normal, normoglycemic diabetic (insulin therapy), hyperglycemic, ketoacidotic, and ammonium chloride treated rats. Glutaminase I, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, fructose-1,6-diphosphatase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured. Renal glutaminase I activity rose during ketoacidosis and ammonium chloride acidosis. Glutamate dehydrogenase in the kidney rose only in ammonium chloride treated animals. Glutamine synthetase showed no particular variation. PEPCK rose in diabetic hyperglycemic animals and more so during ketoacidosis and ammonium chloride acidosis. It also rose in the liver of the diabetic animals. Hexokinase activity in the kidney rose in diabetic insulin-treated normoglycemic rats and also during ketoacidosis. The same pattern was observed in the liver of these diabetic rats. Renal and hepatic phosphofructokinase activities were elevated in all groups of experimental animals. Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase and malate dehydrogenase did not vary significantly in the kidney and the liver. Malic enzyme was lower in the kidney and liver of the hyperglycemic diabetic animals and also in the liver of the ketoacidotic rats. Lactate dehydrogenase fell slightly in the liver of diabetic hyperglycemic and NH4Cl acidotic animals. The present study indicates that glutaminase I is associated with the first step of increased renal ammoniagenesis during ketoacidosis. PEPCK activity is influenced both by hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis, acidosis playing an additional role. Insulin appears to prevent renal gluconeogenesis and to favour glycolysis. The latter would seem to remain operative in hyperglycemic and ketoacidotic diabetic animals.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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