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Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1981;15(1):1-48.

Staling white pan bread: fundamental causes.


Staling, as it is applied to bakery foods, is a generic term covering a number of changes that occur in the products during normal storage. Consumers judge staleness by direct perception, which provides a subjective estimate that represents an unconscious integration of many factors. This review will discuss the main components of staling: (1) physicochemical changes of bread and related products (firming and texture deterioration of crumb and loss of crispness of crust) and (2) flavor changes. Section I will cover current theories of changes of firming and textural changes. The starch component of flour is generally considered to be responsible for these staling reactions. Consequently, the physicochemical involvement of amylose, amylopectin in these reactions will be fully discussed and current evidence supporting these theories (rheological, chemical, X-rays) will be given. Interactions of starch and surface active agents and other complexing compounds will be presented in Section II. In Section III, contribution of minor flour components and bakery food ingredients will be evaluated. Section IV will focus on organoleptic deterioration of products, presenting flavor changes that were observed during staling bread. Section V will discuss structural changes of breads caused by enzymolysis during bread production and storage as related to staling. Following the theoretical section (Sections I to V), Section VI will focus on practical control of staling. This discussion will cover the following factors: formulation, surfactants, enzymes, storage, freezing, and packaging.

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