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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983 Oct;227(1):35-41.

Further study of kappa opioids on increased urination.


The effects of various opioid agonists and antagonists on urination were studied in the normally hydrated rat. Two kappa agonists, U-50,488H and proxorphan, markedly increased urination. The increased urination produced by U-50,488H was antagonized by opioid antagonists in a potency order which indicated that the effects were due to an action at kappa opioid receptors. Mu agonists decreased urination and were blocked by low doses (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg) of naloxone, whereas kappa agonists increased urination and were only blocked by a high dose (10 mg/kg) of naloxone. The diuretic effects of U-50,488H and ketazocine, but not proxorphan and bremazocine, were reduced by morphine, consistent with the idea that proxorphan and bremazocine have morphine antagonist activity. Water deprivation produced a shift to the right for the dose-effect curve for bremazocine-induced diuresis. Kappa agonists were ineffective in increasing urination in Brattleboro rats that were homozygous for diabetes insipidus, whereas mu agonists were still effective in decreasing urination. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that kappa agonists inhibit release of vasopressin from the neurohypophysis and this decrease in vasopressin release leads to increased urination. The effects of opioids on urination in the normally hydrated rat can be extremely useful in classifying the activities of opioid on mu and kappa receptors in vivo.

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