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Aust J Biol Sci. 1981;34(5-6):527-39.

Some properties of glutamine synthetase from the nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.


Nitrosomonas europaea oxidizes ammonia to nitrite, thereby deriving energy for growth. Glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC is the main route for the incorporation of ammonia into glutamic acid, because glutamate synthase (NADPH)(EC was not detected in cell-free extracts of N. europaea. Some properties of a partially purified glutamine synthetase (EC have been determined, namely the effects of pH and metal ions, substrate requirements, Km and Ki values, based on biosynthetic and gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC assays. The molecular weight of the enzyme preparation was approximately 440 000. The gamma-glutamyltransferase activity was markedly inhibited by alanine, lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and serine and to a lesser extent by glycine, asparagine, arginine and histidine. Except for tryptophan and cystine, the gamma-glutamyltransferase activity was inhibited to a greater extent by these amino acids than was the biosynthetic activity. Different pairs of amino acids in various combinations resulted in a cumulative inhibition of enzyme activity determined by either method. Of the various nucleotides tested, the gamma-glutamlytransferase activity of the enzyme was inhibited to a greater extent by di- and triphosphate nucleotides--IDP, CDP, UDP, ITP, CTP, TTP and ATP (except GDP and GTP) than by monophosphate nucleotides except AMP. Saturating concentrations of pyruvate, oxalate, oxaloacetate and alpha-ketoglutarate depressed enzyme activity. Various combinations of amino acids with adenine nucleotides exerted cumulative inhibitory effects on the transferase activity.

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