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Am J Med. 1984 Aug 20;77(2A):52-60.

Enalapril in treatment of hypertension with renal artery stenosis. Changes in blood pressure, renin, angiotensin I and II, renal function, and body composition.


The converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, in single daily doses of 10 to 40 mg, was given to 20 hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis. The decrease in blood pressure six hours after the first dose of enalapril was significantly related to the pretreatment plasma concentrations of active renin and angiotensin II, and to the concurrent decrease in angiotensin II. Blood pressure decreased further with continued treatment; the long-term decrease was not significantly related to pretreatment plasma renin or angiotensin II levels. At three months, 24 hours after the last dose of enalapril, blood pressure, plasma angiotensin II, and converting enzyme activity remained low, and active renin and angiotensin I high; six hours after dosing, angiotensin II had, however, decreased further. The increase in active renin during long-term treatment was proportionately greater than the increase in angiotensin I; this probably reflects the diminution in renin substrate that occurs with converting enzyme inhibition. Long-term enalapril treatment increased renin secretion by more than 10-fold, and renal venous and peripheral plasma renin concentration by more than 20-fold; however, the mean renal venous renin ratio was not changed. Enalapril caused a reduction in effective renal plasma flow via the affected kidney but a marked and consistent increase on the contralateral side, where renal vascular resistance decreased. The overall increase in effective renal plasma flow was significantly related to the decrease in angiotensin II. Overall glomerular filtration rate was lowered, and serum creatinine and urea increased. Enalapril alone caused a long-term reduction in exchangeable sodium, with slight but distinct increases in serum potassium. In five patients with bilateral renal artery lesions, enalapril given alone for three months did not cause renal function to deteriorate. Enalapril was well tolerated and provided effective long-term control of hypertension; only two of the 20 patients studied required concomitant diuretic treatment.

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