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J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1979 Dec;54:47-74.

Quantitative staging of embryonic development of the grasshopper, Schistocerca nitens.


During development of the grasshopper embryo, it is feasible to examine the structure, pharmacology, and physiology of uniquely identified cells. These experiments require a fast, accurate staging system suitable for live embryos. We present a system comprising (1) subdivision of embryogenesis into equal periods, (2) expression of stage in percent of complete embryogenesis time, (3) characterization of stages by light micrographs (and descriptive test), and (4) illustration of stages at the egg, embryo, and limb levels of resolution. Advantages of a percent-system include communicability, flexibility in temporal resolution, accurate assignment of elapsed time in developmental processes, and uniform coverage of the period of embryogenesis. The stages described are at 5% intervals with an estimated error of +/- 1%.

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