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Fertil Steril. 1978 Oct;30(4):379-87.

Traumatic hypomenorrhea-amenorrhea (Asherman's syndrome).


Traumatic damage to the endometrium (corporeal adhesions) and/or to the cervical internal os (cervical stenosis or atresia) may cause hypomenorrhea-amenorrhea, the only sign of Asherman's syndrome. We demonstrated a close correlation between severity of menstrual insufficiency and extent of corporeal adhesions. Minor adhesions in the lower part of the uterine cavity, however, may cause severe hypomenorrhea, frequently complicated by dysmenorrhea. Secondary amenorrhea may be due either to complete obliteration of the uterine cavity or to stenosis or atresia of the internal os, as proved by radiologic studies. When amenorrhea is due to stenosis or atresia of the internal os, the ovarian cycle continues but the endometrium becomes refractory to horomonal stimuli, and hematometra does not occur. Simple cervical dilatation restores menstruation within 4 to 5 weeks. The menstrual insufficiency of Asherman's syndrome, therefore, may be explained by two pathophysiology mechanisms: (1) reduction of the endometrial bleeding area and (2) trophic changes and unresponsiveness of the endometrium, perhaps caused by a visceral reflex originating in the area of the internal os.

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