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Br J Cancer. 1970 Sep;24(3):427-32.

The effects of betel-nut chewing on the buccal mucosa of 296 Indians and Malays in West Malaysia. A clinical study.


Changes in the buccal mucosa of 296 Indian and Malay betel-nut chewers in Perak, West Malaysia, were studied clinically. 167 out of 212 Indian subjects incorporated tobacco in their quids, while 45 out of 84 Malay subjects incorporated. "Gambir". The Indians appeared to show a higher proportion of mucosal changes, particularly when tobacco was used. "Gambir" did not appear to be potent in the production of mucosal changes. Comparison with studies in other parts of the world suggested comparable findings with respect to both tobacco and non-tobacco chewing samples, and there would appear to be some evidence that tobacco-containing quids are likely to produce a higher proportion of mucosal changes as compared to non-tobacco-containing quids. An attempt to demonstrate a dose-effect relationship by dividing the subjects into "slight" and "heavy" chewers did not yield significant differences between these two categories in each of the groups.

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