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Clin Radiol. 1979 Nov;30(6):607-21.

Observations on vesico-ureteric reflux and intrarenal reflux: a review and survey of material.


Objectives of this study were to evaluate some of the factors influencing vesico-ureteric reflux and intrarenal reflux. Reflux occurs in about one-third to a half of Caucasian children with urinary tract infection and although not greatly influenced by examination technique or sex it is affected by age, diuretics and race. Intrarenal reflux occurs in about 10% of cases with total reflux and does not appear to cause scars on its own. Autopsy studies can provide valuable information on papillary morphology and reaction to pressure, but information is of doubtful reliability in the first months of life and in fixed specimens. The literature pertaining to vesico-ureteral reflux, intrarenal reflux and related research projects is briefly reviewed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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