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Am J Public Health. 1979 Dec;69(12):1247-51.

A comparison of the intradermal and subcutaneous routes of influenza vaccination with A/New Jersey/76 (swine flu) and A/Victoria/75: report of a study and review of the literature.


A trail of influenza vaccination, with use of bivalent split virus vaccine (A/New Jersey/76 and A/Victoria/75), was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and reactions when vaccine was given by the subcutaneous and intradermal routes. Volunteers 18 to 24 years old were randomized into equal groups, one group receiving 0.1 ml of vaccine intradermally and the other receiving 0.5 ml subcutaneously. For the A/Victoria vaccine, the immunogenicity of the intradermal route seemed superior; for A/New Jersey vaccine, the routes were equivalent. Adverse reactions were minimal and equivalent for both groups. In times of vaccine shortage, the intradermal route is considered to stretch vaccine supplies. Field trials of new influenza vaccines should include evaluation of the immunogenicity of and adverse reactions caused by the same vaccine given by different routes in varied dosages.

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