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J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1979 Jun;7(3):249-64.

Disposition of synethetic glucocorticoids. I. Pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone in healthy adults.

Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone alcohol is described in six male and six female healthy adult volunteers who each received 8 mg of dexamethasone phosphate by bolus intravenous injection. Quantitation of the alcohol was done using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with improved specificity. Statistical evaluation of the results generated by nonlinear least-squares regression analysis of the plasma concentration-time data shows that the phosphate ester is very rapidly hydrolyzed to the alcohol and a biexponential equation is the simplest polyexponential equation that is consistent with the data. The terminal phase half-life t1/2 beta was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) in males (mean 201.5 min) than in females (mean 142.3 min). They prolonged t1/2 beta in males did not appear to be caused by an impaired capacity to eliminate dexamethasone since the total plasma clearance did not differ between males (mean 24.5 ml/min) and females (mean 242.9 ml/min). There was, however, a high positive correlation between t1/2 beta and Vdss among the 12 adults (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001). There were also significant correlation between Vdss and body weight (r = 0.67, p less than 0.05) and t1/2 beta and body weight (r = 0.80, p less than 0.01). The difference in body weight between the sexes seems to be the main factor contributing to the difference observed in t1/2 beta. An average of only 2.6% of the dose was found unchanged in a 24-hr urine sample, and hence it appears that dexamethasone is primarily eliminated by extrarenal, probably hepatic, mechanisms.

PMID:
480147
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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