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J Pediatr. 1979 Oct;95(4):595-9.

Refractory hypoxemia associated with neonatal pulmonary disease: the use and limitations of tolazoline.


Thirty-nine critically ill infants with pulmonary disease received tolazoline because of severe hypoxemia refractory to administration of 100% O2 and mechanical ventilation. Twenty-seven (69%) of the infants responded with an increase in PaO2 greater than or equal to 20 torr in the first umbilical arterial gas after completion of the initial ten-minute infusion (1 to 2 mg/kg) of the drug. A response was not correlated with survival. The overall survival was 46%, essentially unchanged from our previous report (44%). Infants with hyaline membrane disease had the poorest survival rate (33%). Complications associated with the use of tolazoline occurred in 82% of the infants. A hypotensive reaction, defined as a 25% decrease in mean arterial pressure from the pre-tolazoline level, occurred in 67% of the infants, and more commonly in the infants with RDS (87%). In 11 infants who did not respond to the initial dose of tolazoline, the dose was increased up to 10 mg/kg/hour; only one infant responded, and eight (73%) had a hypotensive reaction.

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