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Appl Microbiol. 1973 May;25(5):745-50.

Abolition of swarming of Proteus by p-nitrophenyl glycerin: general properties.


Para-nitrophenyl glycerin (PNPG) was shown to be an effective agent to abolish the swarming of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris on predried solid culture media. The level required to abolish swarming varied with the strain of Proteus, the components of the medium, and also with the conditions of incubation. Generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM PNPG effectively abolished swarming for at least 24 h with aerobic incubation. Levels of PNPG that abolished swarming showed no effect upon the growth of the cells, little or no effect upon the motility characteristics of the organisms, and no effect upon the cellular morphology. PNPG was found to be freely water soluble, stable to autoclaving, and to retain biological activity for at least one month in prepared culture media stored under refrigeration.

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