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JACEP. 1978 Sep;7(9):326-33.

Shock and resuscitation. II: Volume repletion with minimal edema using the "HALFD"(Hypertonic Albuminated Fluid Demand) regimen.

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Department of Community Medicine, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, Ohio 45404.


A hypertonic albuminated fluid demand regimen (HALFD) for resuscitation has been used in burn patients since January 1, 1976. The effects of the HALFD method were compared with hypertonic fluid and Ringer's lactate resuscitation. Specific attention was directed to fluid, colloid, and volume changes. Resuscitation was guided by maintaining the mean arterial pressure between 60 to 110 torr, and urine volume at 30 to 50 ml/hr. Patients treated with the HALFD method fared significantly better clinically, needed less fluid, had less weight gain and plasma leak, and experienced slower plasma volume repletion than those treated more traditionally. We conclude that the HALFD method is a physically and physiologically appropriate paradigm for resuscitating the volume-depleted patient.

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