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Appl Microbiol. 1974 Jul;28(1):70-6.

Development of a defined minimal medium for the growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.


This investigation describes the development of a solid and a liquid medium (Gonococcal Genetic Medium; GGM) which support the rapid growth of 41 gonococcal clinical isolates and laboratory strains with a minimum number of nutritional components. The complete medium contains minimal salts, eight amino acids, two nitrogen bases, vitamins, coenzymes, key metabolic intermediates, and some miscellaneous components. Results indicate that GGM can be modified and simplified even further than we described. In liquid GGM, several gonococcal strains grew logarithmically after a 2- to 3-h lag period with generation times ranging from 72 to 115 min, reaching optical densities of 175 to 320 Klett units in the presence of seven amino acids and in the absence of a CO(2) atmosphere. The development of a solid and a liquid defined minimal medium such as GGM should greatly broaden the avenues of experimentation for biochemical genetic studies with N. gonorrhoeae, especially gonococcal genetic transformation. N. gonorrhoeae can be classified into eight major and minor phenotypic groups, depending on its growth responses on GGM to just five amino acids: cysteine and cystine, arginine, proline, isoleucine, and serine. Such results demonstrate the feasibility of using GGM as a simple, sensitive, rapid probe for investigating the epidemiological patterns of gonorrhea.

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