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Surgery. 1979 Feb;85(2):129-39.

Crystalloid vs. colloid resuscitation: is one better? A randomized clinical study.

Abstract

The effects of hemodynamic resuscitation with protein-containing or balanced salt solution were studied prospectively in 29 patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery. Blood loss was replaced with packed red cells and extracellular volume with either Ringer's Lactate (RL) or 5% albumin in Ringer's lactate (ALB). Fluids were given to maintain the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) equal to or within 5 torr above preoperative (PO) levels, the cardiac output (CO) equal to or greater than preoperative values, and the urine output at least 50 ml/hr. Serum colloid osmotic pressure (COP), CO, PCWP, the gradient between COP and PCWP (COP-PCWP), and intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) were measured PO, intraoperatively (IO), and daily for 3 days. The measured variables were similar PO in both groups. Operation time, estimated blood loss, and transfusions were similar. Total fluids received for resuscitation (day of operation) was 11.3 +/- 0.8 liters (RL) and 6.2 +/- 0.4 liters (ALB). Fluid balance at the end of resuscitation was 8.4 +/- 0.8 liters (RL) and 3.4 +/- 0.5 liters (ALB). Maximum decrease in COP was 40% (P less than 0.001) in the RL group and was insignificant in the ALB group. The COP-PCWP decreased from 11 +/- 1 to 2 +/- 1 in RL (P less than 0.001) and insignificantly in ALB. Qs/Qt increased slightly in both groups following operation but was not different between groups. Fluid balance, total fluid infused, sodium balance, total sodium infused, COP, or COP-PCWP did not significantly correlate with Qs/Qt. Two patients in the ALB group experienced pulmonary edema associated with normal COPs and elevated PCWPs. There were no cases of pulmonary edema associated with low COPs and normal PCWPs in the crystalloid group. These data seriously question the necessity to maintain COP by using protein-containing solutions during acute hemodynamic resuscitation. When titrated to physiological end points, even large volumes of balanced salt solutions are tolerated well.

PMID:
419454
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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