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Vision Res. 1985;25(10):1477-91.

Spatial visual acuity of the eagle Aquila audax: a behavioural, optical and anatomical investigation.


Behavioural acuity of the wedge-tailed eagle was determined across a range of luminance. Maximum acuity is between 132 and 143 c/deg and with decreasing luminance acuity declines sharply. The maximum anatomical resolving power of the eagle's deep fovea was calculated as 140 c/deg. This calculation was based upon ophthalmoscopic measurement of posterior nodal distance and estimates of photoreceptor spacings made from fixed foveal tissue and corrected for shrinkage. Maximum behavioural acuity and anatomical resolving power correspond closely and approach the highest frequency (157 c/deg) transmitted by the minimum pupil diameter of the eye. These findings are discussed with reference to current theories of visual functioning.

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