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J Biomech. 1985;18(12):877-85.

Dynamically and statically determined low back moments during lifting.


Assessment of the effects of lifting on the low back has most frequently been done with the aid of static models. Many lifting movements appear to have substantial inertial components. It was of interest, therefore, to determine the size of the difference between statically and dynamically calculated lumbar moments during a demanding but not unusual manual lift observed in a metal fabrication industry. The results of several trials by four young men showed that the dynamic model resulted in peak L4/L5 moments 19% higher on average, with a maximum difference of 52%, than those determined from the static model. The technique adopted in the lift could minimize the difference. When the inertial forces of the load itself and the load weight were incorporated into an otherwise static model (quasi-dynamic) then the resulting L4/L5 moments exceeded those of the fully dynamic model by 25%. In many industrial tasks static analyses may severely underestimate the demands of dynamic lifts. These results show that a reasonably inexpensive approach in lifting task analysis is to measure the dynamic forces of the load on the hands and to use these in an otherwise static model. This results in a conservative assessment of the injury risk of lifts at least of the type reported in this study.

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