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Biochem Pharmacol. 1985 Dec 1;34(23):4145-50.

Chelidonic acid and other conformationally restricted substrate analogues as inhibitors of rat brain glutamate decarboxylase.


Twenty conformationally restricted analogues of glutamate including benzoic acids, hydroxy-benzoic acids, pyridine dicarboxylic acids, and pyran dicarboxylic acids were tested as inhibitors of glutamate decarboxylase from rat brain. Chelidonic acid, 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid, chelidamic acid, gallic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were the most potent inhibitors of the enzyme, and generally the aromatic analogues were much more potent inhibitors than their aliphatic counterparts. An intercarboxylate distance of 0.75 nm appears optimal for substrate competition, indicating that glutamate binds to the active site in an extended conformation. At least one carboxyl group can be replaced by a phenolic hydroxyl without greatly affecting inhibition. The degree of inhibition was also influenced by the aromatic structure, particularly with respect to the atom bridging the dicarboxylate carbons. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition by chelidonic acid and chelidamic acid showed that these compounds were competitive with glutamate with Ki values of 1.2 and 33 microM respectively. Consistent with this result, chelidonic acid also inhibited the glutamate-dependent formation of apoenzyme. Chelidonic acid itself did not promote formation of apoenzyme and did not react with free pyridoxal-P. The effects of different classes of glutamate decarboxylase inhibitors are discussed in relation to the formation of apoenzyme and its reactivation by pyridoxal-P. As one of the most potent inhibitors of glutamate decarboxylase known, chelidonic acid may be of value in studies of the regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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