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Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1985 Nov;81(2):192-202.

Structure-activity relationships of putative primaquine metabolites causing methemoglobin formation in canine hemolysates.


A rapid and reproducible in vitro test system was developed to measure the methemoglobin (MHb)-forming properties of various 8-aminoquinoline derivatives. Initial rates and extents of reaction were measured spectrophotometrically with either canine hemolysates from which ferrihemoglobin reductase was removed, or with purified human oxyhemoglobin (Hb). The results demonstrate that primaquine derivatives that can be oxidized to quinones or iminoquinones (5-hydroxy,6-desmethyl primaquine; 5-hydroxyprimaquine; 5,6-dihydroxy-8-aminoquinoline; and 5-hydroxy, 6-methoxy-8-aminoquinoline) are potent MHb-forming compounds. Studies on the extent of reaction in hemolysates and purified oxyhemoglobin suggest that the extent of MHb formation may be limited by the rate at which the corresponding iminoquinones or quinones arylate nucleophiles. The effects of glutathione, mannitol, ascorbate, and superoxide dismutase on the rate and extent of hemoglobin oxidation by 5,6-dihydroxy-8-aminoquinoline suggest that these compounds oxidize Hb similar to the mechanism known for dimethylaminophenol (DMAP), in which Hb oxidizes the quinoline to semiquinone radical and quinone species which are the oxidizing and arylating agents.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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