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Radiology. 1985 Dec;157(3):637-44.

Bronchial artery embolization in the management of hemoptysis: technical aspects and long-term results.

Abstract

Seventy-five patients with hemoptysis were treated with bronchial artery embolization (BAE). The procedure was performed with Hexabrix (sodium methylglucamine ioxaglate), Mikaelson catheters, and Gelfoam particles. Angiographic evaluation of the bronchial artery anatomy revealed ten different configurations, which are described. The embolization attempt failed in three cases (4%); eight additional patients (10.7%) were excluded from the series because of inadequate data. In the remaining 64 patients, 41 underwent BAE alone and 23 underwent either chemotherapy or surgery in addition to embolization. Immediate control of hemoptysis was achieved in 49 of 64 patients (76.6%). Long-term control of hemoptysis was achieved in 46 of the 56 patients included in the long-term follow-up (82.1%). Eight of the 64 patients were lost to follow-up, which ranged from one to 47 months (mean 24.8 months). Hemoptysis recurred in 12 of 56 patients (severe in 10, mild in 2) (21.4%). Twelve patients died (21.4%), five of them due to hemoptysis (8.9%). None of the patients who died of hemoptysis had responded to initial BAE. It is concluded that BAE is an effective treatment for immediate control of life-threatening hemoptysis, allowing long-term control of bleeding in the majority of patients.

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