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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1985 Jul;234(1):153-5.

Nicotine renal excretion rate influences nicotine intake during cigarette smoking.

Abstract

We examined the hypothesis that rate of elimination of nicotine affects nicotine intake during cigarette smoking. Elimination rate was altered by administering ammonium chloride or sodium bicarbonate throughout the day. Nicotine intake during unrestricted cigarette smoking was measured using metabolic clearance data obtained after i.v. nicotine infusion together with blood and urinary nicotine concentrations measured during 24-hr periods of cigarette smoking. Compared with placebo treatment (urine pH 5.6), urinary acidification (pH 4.5) increased (208%) renal clearance and, to a lesser extent (41%), total clearance and increased (by 7.2 mg) daily urinary excretion of nicotine. Urinary alkalinization (pH 6.7) resulted in a decrease (78%) in renal clearance with a small decrease (3.7 mg) in daily nicotine excretion. Average blood nicotine concentrations were similar in placebo and bicarbonate treatment conditions, but were 15% lower during acid loading. Daily intake of nicotine was 18% greater during acid loading. The compensatory increase in nicotine consumption was only partial, replacing about half the excess urinary nicotine loss. This is the first direct demonstration that rate of elimination can influence self-determined drug consumption in humans.

PMID:
4009497
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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