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J Appl Physiol (1985). 1985 Jun;58(6):1975-81.

Immediate effects of cigarette smoking on cardiorespiratory responses to exercise.


To determine the acute action of cigarette smoking on cardiorespiratory function under stress, the immediate effects of cigarette smoking on the ventilatory, gas exchange, and cardiovascular responses to exercise were studied in nine healthy male subjects. Each subject performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion on two separate days, one without smoking (control) and one after smoking 3 cigarettes/h for 5 h. The order of the two tests was randomized. Arterial blood gases and pH were measured during rest and all levels of exercise; CO blood levels confirmed the absorption of cigarette smoke. In addition, minute ventilation (VE), end-tidal PCO2 and PO2, O2 uptake (VO2), CO2 production, directly measured blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and heart rate (HR) were recorded every 30 s. The dead space-to-tidal volume ratio (VD/VT), maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), and anaerobic threshold (AT) were determined from the gas exchange data. Cigarette smoking resulted in a significantly lower VO2max, AT, and VO2/HR (O2 pulse) and a significantly higher HR, pulse-pressure product, and pulse pressure (P less than 0.05) compared with the control. Additionally, a trend toward a higher VD/VT and arterial-end-tidal PCO2 difference was found during exercise after smoking. We conclude that cigarette smoking causes immediate detrimental effects on cardiovascular function during exercise, including tachycardia, increased pulse-pressure product, and impaired O2 delivery. The acute effects on respiratory function were less striking and primarily limited to abnormalities reflecting ventilation-perfusion mismatching.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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