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J Clin Invest. 1985 May;75(5):1477-87.

Mechanism of preservation of glomerular perfusion and filtration during acute extracellular fluid volume depletion. Importance of intrarenal vasopressin-prostaglandin interaction for protecting kidneys from constrictor action of vasopressin.

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Laboratory of Renal Physiology, Department of Medicine, The Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, USA.


Glomerular circulatory dynamics were assessed in 60 adult anesthetized rats, which were either deprived or not deprived of water for 24-48 h. Water-deprived rats (n = 21) were characterized by a depressed level of single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) when compared with nonwater-deprived controls (n = 8) (23.2 +/- 1.3 vs. 44.8 +/- 4.1 nl/min). This was primarily due to decreased glomerular plasma flow rate (71 +/- 5 vs. 169 +/- 23 nl/min) and glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient (0.028 +/- 0.003 vs. 0.087 +/- 0.011 nl/[s . mmHg]). Infusion of saralasin to these water-deprived rats resulted in significant increases in plasma flow rate and ultrafiltration coefficient, and decline in arteriolar resistances. Consequently, SNGFR increased by approximately 50% from pre-saralasin levels. When water-deprived saralasin-treated rats were given a specific antagonist to the vascular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP), d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP, a fall in systemic blood pressure occurred, on average from 102 +/- 5 to 80 +/- 5 mmHg, unaccompanied by dilation of renal arterioles, so that both plasma flow rate (129 +/- 8 vs. 85 +/- 13 nl/min) and SNGFR (31.0 +/- 2.9 vs. 18.2 +/- 4.4 nl/min) decreased. This more selective extrarenal constrictor action of AVP was further documented in additional studies in which cardiac output and whole kidney blood flow rate were simultaneously measured. In water-diuretic rats, administration of a moderately pressor dose of AVP (4 mU/kg per min) resulted in a significant rise in kidney blood flow rate (from 8.8 +/- 1.2 to 9.6 +/- 1.3 ml/min). The higher kidney blood flow rate occurred despite a fall in cardiac output (from 111 +/- 7 to 98 +/- 9 ml/min), and was associated with a significant increase in the ratio of systemic vascular to renal vascular resistance (on average from 0.083 +/- 0.014 to 0.106 +/- 0.019). Furthermore, infusion of d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP to water-deprived animals (n = 6) to antagonize endogenous AVP resulted in systemic but not renal vasodilation, so that kidney blood flow rate fell (by approximately 30%), as did systemic-to-renal resistance ratio (by approximately 30%). When the above two experiments were repeated in indomethacin-treated animals, exogenous AVP administration in water-diuretic rats (n = 6) and antagonism of endogenous AVP in water-deprived rats (n = 7) caused, respectively, parallel constriction and dilation in systemic and renal vasculatures. The net effect was unaltered systemic to renal vascular resistance ratio in both cases. These results indicate that (1) unlike angiotensin II, AVP maintains glomerular perfusion and filtration in acute extracellular fluid volume depletion by a more selective constriction of the extrarenal vasculature. (2) The relative renal insensitivity to the vasoconstrictor action of AVP appears to be due to an AVP-induced release of a potent renal vasodilator, sensitive to indomethacin, presumably prostaglandins.

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