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J Biol Chem. 1985 Jun 25;260(12):7234-40.

Cobra venom phospholipase A2 inhibition by manoalide. A novel type of phospholipase inhibitor.


Manoalide, an unusual nonsteroidal sesterterpenoid recently isolated from sponge, antagonizes phorbol-induced inflammation but not that induced by arachidonic acid, suggesting that manoalide acts prior to the cyclooxygenase step in prostaglandin synthesis, possibly by inhibiting phospholipase A2. We have now studied the inhibitory effect of manoalide on a homogeneous preparation of phospholipase A2 from cobra venom. For a given concentration of manoalide, the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity toward dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/Triton X-100 mixed micelles is time-dependent and plateaus at about 85% inhibition of the initial velocity even after extensive preincubation. Metal ions (Ca2+, Ba2+, Mn2+) increase the inhibition, while lysophosphatidylcholine and substrate micelles protect. Increasing manoalide concentration shows increasing inhibition of the initial velocity until a plateau is reached, giving a typical saturation curve with a linear double-reciprocal plot. Under typical conditions (20-min preincubation, 40 degrees C, pH 7.1), 50% inhibition is achieved at a manoalide concentration of about 2 X 10(-6) M. The data indicate that manoalide is a potent inhibitor of the cobra venom phospholipase A2. Manoalide is now shown to react irreversibly with lysine residues in the enzyme. Surprisingly, the cobra venom phospholipase normally acts poorly on phosphatidylethanolamine as substrate, but after reaction with manoalide, the enzyme is somewhat more active toward this substrate rather than being inhibited. This suggests that a lysine residue may be important in understanding the substrate specificity of phospholipase A2.

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