Send to

Choose Destination
Biol Psychiatry. 1985 Apr;20(4):408-18.

Cholinergic REM induction response: separation of anxiety and depression.


Five groups of subjects underwent EEG sleep recordings, arecoline rapid eye movement (REM) induction response testing, and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) interview. Group I: 20 patients with primary major depressive disorder (MDD) (endogenous) without any coexisting anxiety disorder; Group II: 19 primary MDD (endogenous) patients with secondary panic, GAD, or phobic disorders; Group III: 18 patients with primary anxiety disorder without coexisting MDD; Group IV: 14 patients with primary anxiety plus secondary MDD; Group V: 26 normal controls. Modified Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) were used for diagnosis, based on the SADS interview. There was considerable overlap of SADS scaled scores between patient groups, which is consistent with a heterogeneous clinical presentation of depressive and anxiety states. REM latency was significantly shorter in patients with primary MDD (without anxiety) as compared with that in patients with primary anxiety (no MDD) and normals. Arecoline REM induction response time was significantly shorter in both primary affective groups (I and II) as compared with primary anxiety (no MDD) patients and normal controls. REM latency and arecoline REM induction time was not significantly different between the primary anxiety groups (III and IV) and normals. The study highlights the use of biological markers in differentiating between clinical syndromes confounded by mixed or overlapping phenomenology.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center