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Cell. 1985 Feb;40(2):431-9.

Fusion mutants of the influenza virus hemagglutinin glycoprotein.


The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) mediates viral entry into cells by a low pH induced membrane-fusion event in endosomal vesicles. Mutant viruses with altered pH dependence for both hemolysis and the HA conformational change required for fusion were selected for their ability to grow in cells treated with amantadine hydrochloride, which raises the endosomal pH. The amino acid sequence and three-dimensional location of 19 substitutions on the HA are reported. The mutations fall into two groups, one that results in the destabilization of the pH 7.0 location of the hydrophobic N-terminal HA2 peptide, and a second that results in the alteration of intersubunit contacts, suggesting a large distortion or disruption of these contacts in the "fusion-active" conformation.

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