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Am J Psychiatry. 1986 May;143(5):613-7.

The role of proximity, immediacy, and expectancy in frontline treatment of combat stress reaction among Israelis in the Lebanon War.


The authors examined the effectiveness of the prevailing treatment doctrine stressing the principles of proximity, immediacy, and expectancy for combat stress reaction among Israeli soldiers in the Lebanon War. Two treatment outcomes were measured: return to military unit and presence of posttraumatic stress disorder. All three treatment principles were associated with a higher rate of return to the military unit. The beneficial effect of frontline treatment was also evidenced by lower rates of posttraumatic stress disorder. The authors suggest that these principles can also be effective in treating other forms of posttraumatic stress disorder.

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