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Am J Dis Child. 1986 Feb;140(2):132-4.

Pediatric emergency intravenous access. Evaluation of a protocol.


Effectiveness of a protocol for intravenous (IV) access during pediatric resuscitation was prospectively evaluated to determine whether utilization of a specified sequence of measures would reduce IV access time compared with resuscitations deviating from the protocol. The protocol involved rapid sequential attempts at percutaneous femoral vein catheterization, saphenous vein cutdown, and intraosseous infusions if initial percutaneous peripheral IV insertion failed. While no single technique provided completely reliable and rapid IV access, utilization of all techniques per protocol significantly improved IV access time. When initial percutaneous peripheral IV attempts failed, resuscitations in compliance with the protocol achieved IV access more rapidly (median, 4.5 minutes) than those deviating from the protocol (median, 10.0 minutes). Even with incomplete compliance, 66% of resuscitations achieved IV access within the first five minutes. Our experience indicates that IV access during pediatric resuscitation should rarely be delayed beyond the fifth minute if all available IV techniques are used.

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