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Biochemistry. 1985 Nov 19;24(24):6921-30.

Histone synthesis and deposition in the G1 and S phases of hepatoma tissue culture cells.


Hepatoma tissue culture cells were synchronized in G1 and in S phase in order to examine the level of synthesis of different histone types and to determine the rate, timing, and location of their deposition onto DNA. We observe a basal level of synthesis in G1 (5% of that seen in S phase) for H2A.1, H2A.2, H3.2, H2B, and H4. The minor histone variants X and Z are synthesized at 30% of the rate observed in S cells. The rate of synthesis of the ubiquinated histones uH2A.1,2 is not as depressed in G1 cells as seen for H2A.1 and H2A.2. Histones synthesized in G1 are not deposited on the DNA of these cells at equivalent rates. Thus, histones H3.2 and H4 are not deposited significantly until S phase begins, at which time deposition occurs selectively on newly synthesized DNA. The deposition of H2A.1, H2A.2, H2B, X, and Z proceeds in G1; however, it occurs to a 2-4-fold lower extent than seen for the deposition of H1, HMG 14, and HMG 17. The deposition of all histones synthesized in S phase occurs rapidly, but there are variations in the sites of deposition. Thus, newly synthesized H3.1, H3.2, and H4 deposit primarily on newly replicated DNA whereas H2A.1, H2A.2, uH2A.1, 2, and H2B deposit only partially on new DNA (30%) and mostly on old. H1, HMG 14, and HMG 17 are deposited in an apparently fully random manner over the chromatin. To interpret these observations, we propose a model which includes a measure of histone exchange on the chromatin fiber. The model emphasizes the dynamics of histone-histone and histone-DNA interactions in regions of active genes and at replication forks.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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