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Am J Anat. 1985 Apr;172(4):265-78.

Early implantation stages in the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).


The morphology of the initial stages of implantation in the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) was studied by obtaining embryos and associated endometrium at timed intervals after ovulation. Estrus cycles were detected by measuring daily levels of plasma progesterone. Following a short follicular phase, circulating levels of progesterone above 20 ng/ml were taken as representing day 1 after ovulation. On this basis, single, twin, and triplet embryos were recovered from six perfused-fixed females on days 13, 16, 19, 23, and 29 after ovulation and prepared in resin for light microscopy. Early implantation stages, 13 and 16 days after ovulation, were characterized by the intrusion of syncytial trophoblast between epithelial cells of the endometrium with minimal cellular damage. Some hyperplasia of epithelium at the margin of the implantation site was evident. The consolidation of the initial attachment was achieved by an increase in syncytial trophoblast underlying the inner cell mass of the embryo which rapidly surrounded and breached maternal capillaries. Although initially separate, the chorions of twin or triplet embryos started to fuse by day 19 after ovulation. This process was complete by day 29 such that embryos shared a common uterine exocoelom surrounded by continuous trophoblast. It was concluded that implantation in the marmoset monkey commenced on days 11-12.5 after ovulation and involved an intrusive mechanism. Although trophoblast penetration of endometrium was superficial, maternal capillaries were tapped at an early stage of implantation. The fusion of chorions of twins and triplets first occurred around day 19 after ovulation.

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